Kenji Hakuta si Martha Castellon prezinta provocarile si oportunitatile
celor care invata limba engleza
Daca ati fi un surfer, Standardele de baza comune ale statului si Standardele stiintifice pentru generatia urmatoare vor cuprinde ceva precum un val enorm generat de o furtuna perfecta de conditii. Mediul de politica educationala la nivel national combina zeci de ani de eforturi in domeniul reformelor bazate pe standarde, incercari de a lega dezvoltarea continutului academic cu dezvoltarea limbii a doua in engleza si blocarea politica de reautorizarea Legii educatiei elementare si secundare. Indiferent ca iti place sau nu, aici vine valul, iar alegerea care se confrunta cu tine si cu colegii de scoala si de district este cum sa o calaresti.
Initiativa intelegerii limbajului, co-condusa de Kenji Hakuta de la Universitatea Stanford si Maria Santos din districtul scolar unificat Oakland, a investigat cererile particulare de utilizare a limbii care sunt inerente noilor standarde, cu implicatii grave pentru ELL-uri. prison rape porn zenwriting.net In acest articol, vom aborda ce ar putea insemna noile standarde pentru profesorii invatatorilor de limba engleza – atat profesorii de dezvoltare a limbii engleze (sau limba engleza ca a doua limba), cat si multi profesori de continut academic, precum literatura, istorie, stiinta sau matematica, care predau ELL-uri. De asemenea, vom aborda ce ar insemna acest nou val pentru liderii de scoli si raioane si modul in care educatorii pot valorifica cel mai bine.
Contextul istoriei si politicilor
Noile standarde vin intr-un moment dat in timpul seriei de eforturi ale acestei natiuni pentru reforma bazata pe standarde, care dateaza din anii 1980, odata cu lansarea unei natiuni in pericol in 1983. Acest raport semnal a atras atentia nationala asupra nivelului scazut realizarea studentilor si a generat o energie de reforma care a culminat cu cele doua elemente majore ale legislatiei din epoca lui Clinton – Obiectivele 2000 si reautorizarea Legii educatiei elementare si secundare, denumita Actul pentru imbunatatirea scolilor din 1994. philipino porn mb.tickets.wonderworksonline.com Principala teorie a actiunii in aceste politici se misca crearea unor standarde inalte pentru toti studentii declanseaza schimbari sistemice care aliniaza toate partile unui sistem de stat si local local distribuit si prost organizat.
In reautorizarea, care este cunoscuta in mod obisnuit sub denumirea de No Child Left Behind Act din 2001, testele standardizate aliniate standardelor de continut academic au primit dinti prin cerinte de responsabilitate federale – inclusiv reducerea diferentei de realizare pentru ELLs. Legea a cerut, de asemenea, statelor sa creeze teste pentru competenta limbii engleze si a creat responsabilitatea statului si districtului pentru atingerea valorilor de referinta de competenta. Este important de cerut ca standardele de competenta lingvistica sa fie aliniate standardelor academice – cel putin in teorie, deoarece nimeni nu a putut spune cum se poate face acest lucru!
Aceste evolutii au creat conditii care au creat stadiul pentru nucleul comun – sistemele acordau acum mai multa atentie atingerii si evolutiei limbilor universitare si a limbii engleze a ELL-urilor, in mare parte cauzate de cerintele si conditiile de responsabilitate, precum si de intersectia de continut si limba. mommy afton porn budnidagestana.ru – toate la nivel de stat.1
Current congressional gridlock now becomes part of the story. Ask almost any educator what they think about NCLB, and on top of their list is the unrealistic nature of the requirement about proficiency attainment and gap reduction between subgroups of students over the life of the law. I am fairly certain that no legislator truly believed this to be a realistic goal when they voted for the law in 2001 and that they justified it by saying that it was aspirational and that the law would be reauthorized and the goals recalibrated. cum eaters porn charlie-wiki.win Well, twelve years later, it is highly unlikely that reauthorization will be taken up seriously in the new Congress.
In anticipation of congressional inaction and in response to pressure from districts and states for relief from the corrective actions triggered by NCLB, the Obama administration in 2011 announced the option for states to apply for a waiver from some provisions of the law based on state agreement to implement reforms related to some of the administration’s priorities, including achieving college- and career-ready expectations (read: the Common Core), developing differentiated recognition, accountability, and support systems, and systems support for effective instruction and leadership.2 An important component in the administration’s guidelines was in the following sentence: “An SEA must also support English Learners in reaching such standards by committing to adopt English language proficiency (ELP) standards that correspond to its college- and career-ready standards and that reflect the academic language skills necessary to access and meet the new college- and career-ready standards, and committing to develop and administer aligned ELP assessments” (emphasis mine).
While only a handful of policy wonks initially saw the significance of this sentence, on which state school chiefs from many states signed off, what it means is clear: state English language proficiency tests, which are not part of the Common Core State Standards, must nevertheless all be aligned to state ELP standards that “correspond” to the Common Core. ana lorde porn neurostar.com The intended system is an aggregate of the content and language standards, united by the Common Core.
With 45 states having adopted the Common Core, and most states having received waivers from NCLB under these conditions (34 states plus the District of Columbia, at last count, and most of the remainder at some stage in the application process), this issue of how to address English language proficiency and the Common Core has emerged from a sideshow to center stage of state-level policy in the majority of states in the nation.
The Understanding Language initiative is a collaboration of educational experts and leaders in policy and practice who have a shared interest in addressing the challenges and opportunities created by the CCSS and the Next Generation Science Standards, with a primary emphasis on the impact on ELLs. Through its website (http://ell. furry porn animation fravito.fr stanford.edu) and public presentations, the initiative has released papers, policy statements, and instructional resources to actively engage key stakeholders and district and state leaders on these issues.
The key argument of Understanding Language is that the new content standards have the following characteristics: (1) they raise the bar for content learning and highlight the role of construct-relevant disciplinary language, and (2) they define language not just in cognitive terms, but in terms of teacher-student and student-student discourse. The ELA and literacy standards call for students to evaluate complex texts, construct effective arguments, and communicate intricate information. asajj ventress porn www.douban.com The math standards call for students to construct arguments, make conjectures, build statements that explore the truth of their conjectures, and understand the reasoning of others. The science standards (still in draft form) call for students to engage in peer review of scientific explanations and in the construction of effective arguments.
Collectively, these standards call for instruction that supports student engagement in productive and oral written group work with peers and with teachers. Students are expected to have opportunities to explain and demonstrate their knowledge using emerging complex language and other communicative strategies in different settings, and to have access to complex written text and corresponding instructional and peer supports from which to extract meaning. stellaris porn sites.simbla.com 3
Given these expectations, educators must surely move significantly beyond thinking of language as a vocabulary list of academic words and collection of grammatically accurate sentences. This raises the question of whether we can hold such high and demanding expectations of all content teachers. For example, in California, there is a required certification for all teachers who teach ELLs, whose preparation also theoretically includes some preparation to support language development. That said, surveys of teachers in California show that they feel most inadequately prepared to teach ELLs, even without piling on the language demands that are made explicit in the new content standards. twin incest porn massandra.su 4 Without much hyperbole, one can safely say that the preparation and professional development of teachers in supporting these rich uses of classroom language is a necessary component of reform if the expectations of the new standards are to be met.
The change in expectations for content teachers implies a change in expectations for ESL/ELD teachers. For one thing, the state standards around English language proficiency will be changing in most states by the end of this year — the state schools chiefs in the waiver states have all signed off to adopt ELP standards that correspond to the Common Core “by 2013.” The WIDA Consortium has already adopted new standards, as has California, all intentionally oriented toward supporting the language demands of the content standards. don t starve porn ameblo.jp New York is in the process of revision as well.
A useful crystal ball into what these might look like, collectively, is a document released by the Council of Chief State Schools Officers, known as the “ELPD Framework” (English Language Proficiency Development).5 This document attempts to help states determine whether their ELP standards correspond (a word introduced by the administration in its regulatory guidance) to CCSS and NGSS. The document makes clear that there are different language expectations across content areas and that they should be the targets for the ELP standards. business trip porn epssaglik.com They move us from the four skill domains defined by NCLB (as listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to those defined by classroom functions, further differentiated by discipline. How would the ESL/ELD teacher support this, especially in middle and high schools, where instruction is departmentalized?
The Understanding Language initiative maintains a “rapid response team” of almost 1,000 educators around the country, and we recently circulated a query about effective ESL/ELD practices and challenges. The one word that repeatedly came up in their response was “collaboration” — both for good practice as well as for a challenge.
Practitioners are aware of how difficult it is for teachers to collaborate within much of the current system. white trash porn greeninfoworks8.fotosdefrases.com And policy pressures for individual teacher accountability based on student outcomes raise even more obstacles. That said, it is clear that effective collaboration is essential. The CCSS standards in literacy in history/social Studies and in science embedded within ELA/literacy requirements already demands that across disciplines. Now, with the pressure for ELP instruction that corresponds to content standards, ESL/ELD teachers need clearly be in the mix. bad uncle porn cosmostech.eu This is a call for action for all teachers, but especially for school and district administrators to create structures and processes that facilitate effective collaboration.
These are interesting times for language educators. Years after landmark court decisions (Lau v. Nichols in 1974) obligated educators to attend to English learners’ language proficiency while providing access to content, our issue — balancing the dualities of language and content on behalf of the educational rights of ELLs — has shifted from the periphery towards the center of policy attention. toph porn azurcraft.de This is the time when we bring together all that we have learned from practice and research to effectively surf the large wave. The complexities of the education system require that our message be repeated, repeated, and repeated: that collaboration across teachers is essential, that collaboration between second language acquisition experts and teacher trainers/professional development providers is of equal importance, and that the system needs to enable such collaborations to happen in a thoughtful and meaningful way.
1. An important exception to this is the WIDA consortium of states that developed common English language proficiency standards and assessments, resulting in a collaboration across states that pre-dates the current state assessment consortia operating for the Common Core. furry dog porn wool-wiki.win
2. See Supporting English Language Learners: A Pocket Guide for State and District Leaders (2012). Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Downloaded at http://www. dad forced daughter porn uniform-wiki.win air.org/files/ELL_Pocket_Guide1.pdf
3. Examples of such opportunities may be found in an instructional unit developed by Understanding Language for the middle grades entitled “Persuasion across time and space: Analyzing and producing persuasive texts,” available from http://ell. homemade tumblr porn pivovarnya-forum.ru stanford.edu/teaching_resources/ela
4. P. Gandara, J. alyssa west porn bitmarktalk.org Maxwell-Jolly, and A. Driscoll. 2005. Listening to Teachers of English Learners. karson kennedy porn zahlamino.ru Santa Cruz, CA: Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning.
5. Downloaded at http://www.ccsso. tumblr furry porn comic searchamateur.com org/Resources/Publications/T
Kenji Hakuta is the Lee L. Jacks professor of Education at Stanford University and co-chair of the Understanding Language Initiative.
Martha Castellon is the executive director of the Understanding Language Initiative.